Electrochemically Responsive 3D Nanoarchitectures

publication date
August 30, 2023
page number


Hamidinejad, M., Wang, H., Sanders, K.A. and De Volder, M., 2023. Electrochemically Responsive 3d Nanoarchitectures. Advanced Materials, p.2304517.

PI-KEM Product referenced:

Battery Separator


Responsive nanomaterials are being developed to create new unique functionalities such as switchable colors and adhesive properties or other programmable features in response to external stimuli. While many existing examples rely on changes in temperature, humidity, or pH, this study aims to explore an alternative approach relying on simple electric input signals. More specifically, 3D electrochromic architected microstructures are developed using carbon nanotube–Tin (Sn) composites that can be reconfigured by lithiating Sn with low power electric input (≈50 nanowatts). These microstructures have a continuous, regulated, and non-volatile actuation determined by the extent of the electrochemical lithiation process. In addition, this proposed fabrication process relies only on batch lithographic techniques, enabling the parallel production of thousands of 3D microstructures. Structures with a 30–97% change in open-end area upon actuation are demonstrated and the importance of geometric factors in the response and structural integrity of 3D architected microstructures during electrochemical actuation is highlighted.


Mahdi Hamidinejad, Heng Wang, Kate A Sanders, and Michael De Volder

Organisation / Department Address:

  1. Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FS, United Kingdom
  2. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, 9211-116 Street NW, Edmonton, ABT6G1H9, Canada