Wafer Processing Services

Preparation for your research and production needs

PI-KEM provides an extensive choice of wafers including glass, silicon, germanium, and other semiconductor materials.  Alongside this we also offer a range of processing services for our silicon, sapphire, and single crystal wafers.

  • Coatings

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    Wafer coating is a versatile process that can be used to improve the performance, reliability, and manufacturability of wafers in a wide range of industries.

    Wafers can be coated for a variety of reasons, including:

    • Protection: Giving protection from environmental factors for example; Oxidation, contamination, and moisture. Important for wafers used in semiconductor manufacturing, where even a small defect can ruin a microchip.
    • Improved performance: Can provide electrical insulation, reduction of friction, or enhanced optical properties.
    • Ease of processing: Provide a smooth surface for deposition of other materials or make the wafer more resistant to etching

    Specific examples of why wafers are coated in different industries include:

    • Semiconductor manufacturing: Used on silicon wafers to protect them from oxidation and contamination, and to provide electrical insulation. These coatings are also used as etch stop layers and as diffusion barriers.
    • Solar cell manufacturing: Coated with anti-reflective coatings to improve their efficiency.
    • Display manufacturing: Coated with metal coatings to provide electrical conductivity and to enhance optical properties.

    PI-KEM can offer a variety of coatings which, dependent on coating type and application methods, can be applied in a range of thicknesses.

  • Laser Marking

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    Allowing tight quality control and traceability as each wafer has a unique identification number. Essential for batch monitoring for research, compliance with industry regulations and ongoing quality management.

  • Surface Finishes

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    PI-KEM can offer a variety of surface finishes to support research and production requirements


    Many applications, including semiconductor, sensor, and micro-electronic device manufacture, require wafers to have exact specifications, with tight tolerances, for flatness and thickness to ensure they work reliably and perform well. By polishing the wafers, these requirements can be achieved.  Wafer polishing uses an abrasive slurry and specialist equipment to remove a thin layer from the surface of the wafer.

    Polishing can be single sided (SSP) or double sided (DSP) and involves removing up to 10 microns from the wafer surface. 

    • Reduces thickness
    • Reduces stress points caused by flaws developed during boule growth or wafer preparation so decreasing the chance of breakages
    • Prevents warping, as strength and flexibility are increased.
    • Produces a more enhanced wafer with a super smooth, uniform crystal surface for epitaxial thin film growth
    • Prepares them for future processing. By reducing the number of defective devices, a higher yield can be achieved

    As cut/sawn

    These wafers are sliced from the raw silicon ingot before any other process is carried out. Their surfaces are rough and non-reflective. As-cut wafers can be used for basic research that does not require a highly finished surface or bought by manufacturers to process to their own specifications.

    PI-KEM can offer up to 6” or 150mm diameter as cut/ sawn wafers.


    Lapping allows the production of wafers with a flat, smooth surface and tight tolerances of thickness, parallelism, flatness, or finish. By treating the wafer surface with a slurry and moving it over a lapping pad it gains a flat, matte, dull grey surface. These wafers can be used as is or be further processed with polishing.


    Etched wafers are commonly used as the base for microelectronic devices. Etching can be carried out by wet or dry etching, both result in the removal of unwanted contaminants from the surface of the wafer.

    PI-KEM can supply etched wafers to customers individual specifications.  We also supply the Cheersonic coaters which enable customers to deposit their own photoresist and other coatings.  Click here find out more about the Cheersonic equipment, or watch the video here.

  • Dicing Service

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    Individual wafers are cut into small chips or dies for customers own processing needs, including lithography, deposition, and etching.

    Wafers are diced to customers specifications.


    • Coating
    • Dicing
    • Etching
    • Polishing
    • Laser marking
    • As cut or lapped


    • Silicon
    • Glass
    • Sapphire
    • Germanium
    • InPh

    If the material you require is not listed, please contact our Business Development Team for support.

  • Service Overview Tables

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    Type Method Thickness (nm) Diameter
    Si2O2 Silicon Dioxide Wet Oxidation 200-3000 From 1” to 6”
    High Purity Dry Oxidation 20-300 From 1” to 6”
    Single face oxidation also available
    Si3N4 Silicon Nitride LPCVD or PECVD 20-500 From 2” to 6”
    Metal Coatings including: PVD Sputtering or Evaporation 20-1000 From 1’’ to 6’’ (depending on metals)
    Other metal coatings & multi-layer deposition available on request


    As cut Lapped Etched Single Side Polished Double Side Polished
    On polished surface: Roughness <2Å / Total Thickness Variation (TTV) <1µm
    Laser marking available on request

    Dicing services

    Form Specifications
    Tiles E.g. 10mm x 10mm, 20mm x 20mm (minimum size 1.5mm x 1.5mm)
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